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Biotech Century

Release of the First Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)

Won landmark federal court suit halting the first government authorized deliberate release of a genetically engineered organism into the environment, pending an environmental assessment of the potential risks. The litigation forced the federal government and countries around the world to establish environmental regulations governing the release of genetically modified organisms into the biosphere.


The Washington Post, U.S. Approves Dissemination of Gene-Engineered Microbe, September 14, 1983

The Washington Post, NIH Weighing Plans to Release Altered Bacteria, September 20, 1983

The Washington Post, Field-Testing a Gene-Engineered Microbe Endorsed, September 22, 1983

Nature, Suit Filed Against NIH, September 22, 1983

The Washington Post, Field Test of Gene-Engineered Microbes Is Postponed, October 5, 1983

Nature, Frost Damage Trial Halted, October 13, 1983

Nature, Legal Threat, Cold Delay UC Experiement, October 21, 1983

Nature, Living With Regulation, October 27, 1983

Nature, Rifkin Bugs Bug, April 19, 1984

Science, Rifkin Takes Another Shot at UC Experiment, April 27, 1984

The Washington Post, U.S. Judge Halts Experiment in Gene Altering, May 17, 1984

Nature, Anatomy of a Pressure Group, May 24, 1984

Nature, Rifkin Wins Interim Injunction, May 24, 1984

Nature, Picking Up the Pieces, May 31, 1984

Science, Judge Halts Gene- Splicing Experiment, June 1, 1984

Nature, Bacterial Field Trial to go Ahead, June 7, 1984

Science, Panel Backs Research Blocked by Court, June 15, 1984

Nature, Rifkin Strikes at Corn This Time, July 5, 1984

Science, Rifkin Broadens Challenge in Biotech, July 20, 1984

The Washington Post, EPA Eyes Biotech Regulation, September 1, 1984

The Washington Post, Group Seeks More Biotech Controls, September 6, 1984

Science, NIH Bows to Part of Rifkin Suit, November 30, 1984

Science, Another Round in Rifkin Versus Gene Splicing, December 21, 1984

The Washington Post, Appeals Panel Sets Guidelines for Genetic Experiments, February 28, 1985

Nature, Rifkin Battle Lost, War Undecided, March 7, 1985

Science, Rifkin and NIH Win in Court Ruling, March 15, 1985

Science, Rifkin Versus Gene Splicing: NIH Wins a Round, July 19, 1985

The Washington Post, Antifrost Microbe to Be Released, November 13, 1985

Nature, Frost Damage Tests Blocked, January 23, 1986

Science, Local Opposition Halts Biotechnology Test, February 14, 1986

Nature, Frost Resistance and Pseudonomas, February 20, 1986

Nature, Another Turn for Ice-Minus Bugs, May 15, 1986

Nature, Regulations Please Nobody, July 32, 1986

Science, Biotech Guidelines Challenged by Rifkin, August 1, 1986

Nature, Ice-Minus Test Stopped Yet Again, September 4, 1986

The Washington Post, Experiment With Bacteria Reapproved After Dispute Firm Had Violated Rules With Outdoor Tests, February 12, 1987

Nature, Field Test of Ice- Minus Bacteria Goes Ahead Despite Vandals, April 30, 1987





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